If you visit a dealership, you’ll realize that the future of the automobile has arrived. Gone are the days that the Toyota Prius was the only green vehicle to choose from, as hybrids have become so mainstream that nearly every automaker offers them. And hybrids aren’t the only option for eco-minded drivers. There’s a growing list of plug-in hybrids to choose from as well as full electric vehicles. Popular gasoline models like the Toyota RAV4, Ford Escape, and Hyundai Santa Fe have both hybrid and plug-in hybrid versions available. What are the differences between hybrids and plug-in hybrids? And how do these vehicles differ from electric vehicles?
To help understand the differences among these vehicle types, we’ve covered how these three powertrains generate power and what makes each design unique. We’ve also explained what needs to be taken into account when determining which vehicle type is right for you.
How Do Hybrid Cars Work?
In the last 20 years “hybrid” has become a common automotive term, even if the technology behind it isn’t widely understood. The hybrid’s place in everyday speech can be credited to one car: the Toyota Prius. Introduced in Japan in 1997, the Prius was the first mass-produced vehicle to combine gas and electric power for enhanced fuel efficiency. In 2001, it was first exported to America, arriving in U.S. showrooms shortly after the first-generation Honda Insight hybrid (a model that never achieved the visibility and sales volume of the Prius)
At the time, the Prius was a revelation. The nondescript compact sedan (the familiar hatchback design wouldn’t arrive until 2003) was rated by the EPA at 41 mpg in the combined city/highway cycle. To put that in perspective, the Toyota Corolla of the time was rated at 30 mpg combined.
The secret to the stellar fuel economy of the Prius is its hybrid powertrain. Hybrids use both an internal combustion engine and an electric motor-generator to produce power. It has a large battery pack that supplies power to the electric motor. Depending on the situation, hybrid cars can operate exclusively on electricity or gas, or use both power sources simultaneously.
There are two main types of hybrids: full hybrids and mild hybrids. Full hybrids typically start with electric power before switching over to gas at a certain speed. Under heavy throttle, the gas engine works together with the electric motor to provide maximum acceleration. Once at cruising speed, the gas engine takes over. Mild hybrids are similar, but cannot operate only on electricity. They instead augment the gas engine in all situations, including initial take-off.
In both hybrid designs, cruising speeds allow the gas engine to simultaneously charge the battery by running the electric motor in reverse direction. The regenerative braking systems found in most hybrids serve the same purpose, using the spinning wheels from the slowing car to drive the electric motor in reverse – called regenerative braking – and recharge the hybrid battery pack.
The battery packs in hybrids are smaller than the packs used in plug-in hybrids and full electrics. This is because hybrids do very little all-electric driving, thereby significantly reducing the load on the electrical drive system. The operation of both the regenerative brakes and the engine is enough to keep the relatively small hybrid battery pack sufficiently charged, negating the need to ever plug in.
Plug-In Hybrid Cars
The massive success of the Prius paved the way for further research into automotive hybrid technology. The resulting industry fervor led to the development of plug-in hybrids and fully electric vehicles.
Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) were a natural next step from the standard hybrid. One limitation of the conventional hybrid is that it doesn’t provide any sort of all-electric driving beyond initial acceleration. The plug-in hybrid rectifies that by using a larger battery pack and upsized electric motor. The added battery capacity is what provides that all-important all-electric range.
But even a plug-in hybrid’s large battery packs run down quickly, and in most models, the total range of all-electric driving generally ranges from 20 to 40 miles of gentle driving. Some, like the Toyota RAV4 Prime, manage 42 miles to a charge. After the electric range is depleted, the car reverts to operating much like a traditional hybrid. The battery pack won’t regain enough charge from regenerative braking and gasoline-engine operation to run as an electric. The only way to fully recharge a plug-in hybrid is to plug it in.
All Electric Cars
Full electric cars - also known as battery electric vehicles (BEVs) - need to be plugged in as well, but they provide all-electric range that’s often equivalent to an entire tank of gas. Tesla pioneered the electric car revolution with the performance-oriented and technologically-advanced Tesla Model S sedan, which debuted in 2012. Tesla has introduced additional vehicles since then, including the Model X, Model Y, and Model 3, but it was the original Model S - and the impact it had on the collective automotive culture - that led other brands to pursue full electrification. Today, electric cars and crossovers can be purchased from a variety of brands from mainstream to exotic, including Chevrolet, Hyundai, Kia, BMW, Lotus, and Porsche.
Ditching the gas motor entirely, electric cars rely on at least one motor to directly drive the front or rear wheels. These motors get their power from a large battery pack. In order to provide enough charge for long-distance motoring, the battery pack in a full electric is much larger than what’s found in a plug-in hybrid. It’s why many electrics are 5,000-pound machines - a good half-ton heavier than comparable gas-engine vehicles.
To help compensate for their excessive weight, electric vehicle batteries can be packaged under the floor, freeing up hood space and lowering the center of gravity. The latter is important: from behind the wheel, a lower center of gravity provides better handling and enhances the driver’s confidence in the car’s abilities. Even electric crossovers like the Jaguar I-Pace drive more like sport sedans due to having the brunt of their weight underneath the car.
Hybrid Vs. Plug-In Hybrid Vs. Electric: How to Choose
Despite some similarities among the three powertrain designs, their differences are distinctive enough that knowing which is right for you will take some careful deliberation. We’ve outlined some of the more important factors to consider here.
Hybrid, Plug-In, and Electric Car Range
This is likely the most important differentiator among the three powertrains. A conventional hybrid has no electric driving range, and while it significantly improves gas mileage, it still emits tailpipe emissions on even the shortest trips. Plug-in hybrid cars have enough battery capacity for some real-world range, but it’s typically limited to about 50 miles or less. Unless you don’t stray out of city limits, you’ll still find yourself filling up at the local gas station. Once the gas engine does kick on, you’ll enjoy fuel economy on par with the hybrid.
Opt for the full electric and you’ll never have to go to a filling station again. The maximum range for the current crop of electric cars varies widely: a Mini Cooper SE has only about 110 miles of range, while a Tesla Model 3 will travel up to 358 miles on a single charge for its Long Range version. Electric vehicle range continues to improve with new entrants to the market. The Lucid Air Grand Touring model, with its extended-range battery pack, has an estimated EPA range of around 517 miles, setting a new standard for EV range. The Rivian R1T all-electric pickup truck’s longer-range variant has an estimated range of around 400 miles. Multiple popular models, including the Chevrolet Bolt, Nissan LEAF, and Hyundai Kona, offer around 240-260 miles of range.
Just like a combustion engine doesn’t get the same gas mileage in every situation, the same is true with electric cars: range varies, sometimes considerably, depending on a variety of factors besides driving style. Steep hills and extreme temperatures, for instance, both negatively affect battery efficiency and total driving range. Consumer Reports tested both the Tesla Model 3 and Nissan LEAF in temperatures between 0 and 10 degrees Fahrenheit and found their estimated total range on a full charge fell by about 50 percent from the advertised maximum range.
High speeds and heavy use of climate control also lower the efficiency of electric vehicles. Setting the climate control to 75 degrees will steal away range as the powertrain works harder to supply the necessary heat to the cabin; the same is true if you ask the car to keep the interior chilled to 60 degrees. And cruising at 75 mph will be less efficient than driving at 65 mph.
Plug-In and Electric Vehicles: Charging
The most popular way to charge a plug-in or electric vehicle is with home charging equipment. In fact, all plug-ins and fully electric vehicles come with a 110-volt or Level 1, home charging kit that allows your vehicle to plug into a standard wall outlet. While this is the most convenient method and doesn’t require special electrical installation, it only provides three to five miles of range per hour of charging. This is adequate for plug-ins, but if you want to maximize the all-electric range on your Tesla, it can take more than a full day to re-charge.
Next is the Level 2, 240-volt charger, which can provide between 12 and 60 miles of range per hour. This level of charging is also what’s found in most public charging stations, but home installation requires a visit by a professional electrician that can cost between $500 and $2,000. The cost for home installation is determined by multiple factors, and some local tax incentives can help offset this cost, but you’ll have to research what home charger incentives may exist in your area.
Hybrid and Electric Cars: Price
Electrified vehicles are still a fairly new technology, so pricing remains higher than an equivalent gas-powered car. The government has attempted to kindle interest in fully electric vehicles by offering a tax credit of up to $7,500 tax to buyers. This article explains more about EV tax credits.
Plug-in hybrid vehicles also enjoy the benefit of a tax credit, but because the government determines the amount of the credit based on the capacity of the vehicle’s battery, the exact dollar amount of the credit varies by model. Typically, a PHEV (plug-in hybrid electric vehicle) credit is a couple thousand dollars less than the $7,500 EV credit.
Hybrids don’t get any tax credit, but are only slightly pricier than their non-hybrid counterparts. A Toyota Highlander Hybrid, for instance, is $1,400 more than a comparably equipped non-hybrid Highlander. A Ford Escape Hybrid is $1,200 more than its gas-engined counterpart.
Hybrid and Electric Car Reliability
The reliability of hybrid or electric powertrains doesn’t seem to be an issue so far. Hybrids from Toyota and Ford have been used for years as New York City taxicabs, which is perhaps the ultimate test of a vehicle’s reliability.
As for electric vehicles, their design is actually less complex than any combustion engine, with fewer moving parts to contend with. That means there’s less components to break. Objectively assessing long-term reliability remains a challenge, however, as most EVs have only come to market in the last two or three years.
The Bottom Line
All three powertrain designs have their appeal for a certain type of buyer. The regular hybrid might be best for those who are trying to save some money upfront, cannot reliably plug in to a wall charger each night, and have a long commute. Plug-ins are great for the driver who has a place to charge but enjoys straying from the interstates during road trips. The full electric will appeal most to those who don’t ever want to pump gas again and whose driving habits fall within range limitations.
Whichever type of electrified vehicle suits your needs, there’s no doubt each is an efficient and responsible choice. Whether you’re trying to just save money at the pump or eliminate your own dependence on fossil fuels, a hybrid, plug-in, or electric vehicle will be sure to satisfy.
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